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hakaselogs: Articles on Software development. Written by Francis Sunday, Software craftsman & JAMstack believer.

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Go 1.8 is one year old (Happy belated Birthday 🎊 🎉) Go 1.9 is already 6 months old! Go 1.10 is out ✌

The latest Go release, v1.10 arrived six months after V1.9. This release was stated in the change-logs and the Go blog. I’m gonna share some interesting changes I’ve found in Go 1.10 with you.

New Features

The Language

Go 1.10 offers compiler tool chain and performance improvements, but no significant changes was made to the language’s specification.

Ports

In this release, there are no new supported operating systesm or processor architectures. Main focus has been on strengthening the support of existing ports, introducing new instructions in the assembler, and improvements to the code generated by the compilers.

Notes On Existing Ports

Go 1.10 now requires FreeBSD 10.3 or later. Support for FreeBSD 9.3 has been removed.

Go now runs on NetBSD again, but requires NetBSD 8 (unreleased) - Only GOARCH amd64 and 386 have been fixed, arm port is still broken.

Go 1.10 is the last release that will run on OpenBSD 6.0. Go 1.11 will require OpenBSD 6.2.

On 32-bit MIPS systems, the new environment variable settings GOMIPS=hardfloat (the default) and GOMIPS=softfloat select whether to use hardware instructions or software emulation for floating-point computations.

Go 1.10 is the last release that will run on OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion or OS X 10.9 Mavericks. Go 1.11 will require OS X 10.10 Yosemite or later.

Go 1.10 is the last release that will run on Windows XP or Windows Vista. Go 1.11 will require Windows 7 or later.

Tooling

Default GOROOT & GOTMPDIR

In Go 1.10, if the environment variable $GOROOT is not set, the go tool uses the default GOROOT during compilation, by deducing GOROOT from its own executable path. This change was made, to allow binary distributions to be unpacked anywhere in the file system and then be used without setting GOROOT explicitly. A new variable $GOTMPDIR was added to control where temporary files are created.

Go Build & Go Install

In previous versions, running go build , detects changes of packages based on the time it was modified. The go build command now detects out-of-date packages purely based on th content of source files, specified build flags, and metadata stored in the compiled packages. The go build -asmflags, -gcflags, -gccgoflags, and ldflags options are applied by default only to packages listed directly on the command line. For example, go build -gcflags=-m mypackage passes the compiler the -m flag when building mypackage but not its dependencies. go build -asmflags=pattern=flags ... applies the flags only to the packages matching the pattern. For example go install -ldflags=cmd/gofmt=-X=main.version=1.2.3 cmd/ ... installs all the commands matching cmd/... but only applies the -X option to the linker flags for cmd/gofmt.

Testing

The go test .. command now caches test result if the test executable and command line matches a previous run, and the files and environment variables consulted by the run have not changed. go test will print the previous test output, replacing the elapsed time with the string “cached”. The go test command now runs go vet on the testing package to identify significant problems before running the test(s). go vet can be disabled by passing the -vet=off flag to the go test command - go test -vet=off The go test -coverpkg flag now interprets its argument as a comma-separated list of patterns to match against the dependencies of each test. For example, go test -coverpkg=all is now a more meaningful way to run a test with coverage enabled for the test package and all its dependencies. Passing the -failfast flag to go test disables running additional tests after any test fails. There’s a new flag -json when used with go test, converts the test output to JSON format - go test -json

GoDoc

The go doc tool now adds functions returning slices of T or *T to the display of type T. For example:

$ go doc mail.Address
package mail // import "net/mail"

type Address struct {
	Name    string
	Address string
}
    Address represents a single mail address.

func ParseAddress(address string) (*Address, error)
func ParseAddressList(list string) ([]*Address, error) // Pointer is included
func (a *Address) String() string

In Go 1.9 go doc mail.Address outputs:

package mail // import "net/mail"

type Address struct {
 Name    string
 Address string
}
    Address represents a single mail address. An address such as "Barry Gibbs
    <[[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])>" is represented as Address{Name: "Barry Gibbs", Address:
    "[[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])"}.

func ParseAddress(address string) (*Address, error)
func (a *Address) String() string

Difference between both is the display of ParseAddressList which was only shown the package overview - go doc mail.

Go Vet

The go vet command now always have access to complete, up-to-date type information when checking packages, even for packages using cgo or vendored imports.

Diagnostics

Go 1.10 includes a new overview of available Go program diagnostic tools

Gofmt

Go 1.10 changed two minor details of the default formatting of Go source code. For instance, a certain complex three-index slice expression formatted like x[i+1 : j:k is now formatted with more consistent spacing: x[i+1 : j : k. Inline interface with single methods is now supported:

type CarService interface { Check() }

Running go fmt in Go 1.9 formats the above to:

type CarService interface {
  Check()
 }

Go Fix

The go fix tool now replaces imports of golang.org/x/net/context with "context"

Runtime

The behavior of nested calls to LockOSThread and UnlockOSThread has changed. These functions control whether a goroutine is locked to a specific operating system thread, so that the goroutine only runs on that thread, and the thread only runs that goroutine. Previously, calling LockOSThread more than once in a row was equivalent to calling it once, and a single UnlockOSThread always unlocked the thread. Now, the calls nest: if LockOSThread is called multiple times, UnlockOSThread must be called the same number of times in order to unlock the thread. Existing code that was careful not to nest these calls will remain correct. Existing code that incorrectly assumed the calls nested will become correct. Most uses of these functions in public Go source code falls into the second category.

In Go 1.10, there’s a change. if LockOSThread is called multiple times, UnlockOSThread must be called the same number of times in order to unlock the thread. Detail the changes you can follow links: https://github.com/golang/go/issues/20458 https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/45752

There is no longer a limit on the [GOMAXPROCS](https://tip.golang.org/pkg/runtime/#GOMAXPROCS) setting.

Performance

As always, the changes are so general and varied that precise statements about performance are difficult to make. Most programs should run a bit faster, due to speedups in the garbage collector, better generated code, and optimizations in the core library.

Changes to Standard Library

Here I’ll list some changes to the Go standard library as of Go 1.10, full details on this can be found on the official release doc

Lib: net/url

The ResolveReference method now preserves multiple leading slashes n the target URL. Previously, it rewrote multiple leading slashes to a single slash, which resulted in the http.Client following certain redirects incorrectly. Consider following code:

base, _ := url.Parse("http://host//path//to/page1")
target, _ := url.Parse("page2")
fmt.Println(base.ResolveReference(target))

In Go 1.9, the output of the above is http://host/path//to/page2 In Go 1.10, the resolved URL is http://host//path//to/page2

Note the doubled slashes around path. In Go 1.9 and earlier, the resolved URL was http://host/path//to/page2: the doubled slash before path was incorrectly rewritten to a single slash, while the doubled slash after path was correctly preserved. Go 1.10 preserves both doubled slashes, resolving to http://host//path//to/page2 as required by RFC 3986.

This change may break existing buggy programs that unintentionally construct a base URL with a leading doubled slash in the path and inadvertently depend on ResolveReference to correct that mistake. For example, this can happen if code adds a host prefix like http://host/ to a path like /my/api, resulting in a URL with a doubled slash: http://host//my/api.

Lib: os

File adds new methods SetDeadline, SetReadDeadline, and SetWriteDeadline that allow setting I/O deadlines when the underlying file descriptor supports non-blocking I/O operations. The definition of these methods matches those in net.Conn. If an I/O method fails due to missing a deadline, it will return a timeout error; the new IsTimeout function reports whether an error represents a timeout.

Also matching net.Conn, File’s Close method now guarantee that when Close returns, the underlying file descriptor has been closed. (In earlier releases, if the Close stopped pending I/O in other goroutines, the closing of the file descriptor could happen in one of those goroutines shortly after Close returned.)

On BSD, macOS, and Solaris systems, Chtimes now supports setting file times with nanosecond precision (assuming the underlying file system can represent them).

Lib: strconv

ParseUint now returns the maximum magnitude integer of the appropriate size with any ErrRange error, as it was already documented to do. Previously it returned 0 with ErrRange errors.

Conclusion

This article was made to point out some changes made to the Go programming language. Having been using Go since v1.8 some of the changes to v1.10 brings optimization and faster runtime to developing Go programs. Have you upgraded your existing Go codebases to V1.10? Share your experience in the comment section below 😄.

References

https://golang.org.doc/go1.10

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